FAQ: How to stack piezoceramics to reassembly ultrasonic converters? How should I place them with respect to the piezo element polarity? Mr. M.A.
Piezoelectric ceramics should be connected in parallel to expand and contract in phase. To connect them in parallel, follow the position pattern shown in the figure below. The piezo elements positive side should be facing the other element positive side, and negative side to the other element negative side or one of the metallic masses. Some manufacturers mark their piezo elements with a dot on the silver electrode or on the side, instead of using a plus (+) sign.
Piezoelectric ceramics stacking sequence in power ultrasonic transducers and converters.
Warning: To handle piezoelectric ceramics, use conductive gloves or prior discharge them with a brief short-circuiting. Temperature variations may build electrical charges up by pyroelectric effect. To apply torque during the converter assembly, monitor the prestress with PiezoClamping®. If you choose not to monitor the prestress, short-circuit the converter terminals to avoid electrical charges build up and high voltage discharges. A converter electrical discharge is dangerous and within kV range.
Learn more about piezoceramics prestress technology.